An inducible CiliaGFP mouse model for in vivo visualization and analysis of cilia in live tissue
- Equal contributors
1 1Department of Cell, Development, and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
2 Department of Craniofacial Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
3 Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
4 The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian Scotland, UK
5 5Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
6 6Center for Translational Science, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
Cilia 2013, 2:8 doi:10.1186/2046-2530-2-8Published: 3 July 2013
Cilia are found on nearly every cell type in the mammalian body, and have been historically classified as either motile or immotile. Motile cilia are important for fluid and cellular movement; however, the roles of non-motile or primary cilia in most tissues remain unknown. Several genetic syndromes, called the ciliopathies, are associated with defects in cilia structure or function and have a wide range of clinical presentations. Much of what we know about the formation and maintenance of cilia comes from model systems like C. elegans and Chalmydomonas. Studies of mammalian cilia in live tissues have been hampered by difficulty visualizing them.
To facilitate analyses of mammalian cilia function we generated an inducible CiliaGFP mouse by targeting mouse cDNA encoding a cilia-localized protein somatostatin receptor 3 fused to GFP (Sstr3::GFP) into the ROSA26 locus. In this system, Sstr3::GFP is expressed from the ubiquitous ROSA26 promoter after Cre mediated deletion of an upstream Neo cassette flanked by lox P sites. Fluorescent cilia labeling was observed in a variety of live tissues and after fixation. Both cell-type specific and temporally regulated cilia labeling were obtained using multiple Cre lines. The analysis of renal cilia in anesthetized live mice demonstrates that cilia commonly lay nearly parallel to the apical surface of the tubule. In contrast, in more deeply anesthetized mice the cilia display a synchronized, repetitive oscillation that ceases upon death, suggesting a relationship to heart beat, blood pressure or glomerular filtration.
The ability to visualize cilia in live samples within the CiliaGFP mouse will greatly aid studies of ciliary function. This mouse will be useful for in vivo genetic and pharmacological screens to assess pathways regulating cilia motility, signaling, assembly, trafficking, resorption and length control and to study cilia regulated physiology in relation to ciliopathy phenotypes.